Tag Archive: kayak stability

The world’s fastest kayak is the most stable kayak too, naturally

Stability is a major speed factor

The link between stability and speed in boats is very strong, and nowadays most people are aware of the fact that thanks to their improved stability, multi-hulls are faster than comparable mono-hulls under sail as well as motorized.
Simply, boats differ by the volume of their hulls, and there are two ways to design a boat –
In the mono-hull form, most of the hull’s volume is concentrated along its center line, where it contributes nothing to lateral stability.
In the twin-hull (a.k.a. catamaran) form, the boat’s volume is split in two, and each half is distributed along the boat’s sides, where it works effectively to increase the sides’ buoyancy and thus the boat’s overall lateral stability.
In other words, when stability is concerned, the mono-hull form is wasteful, and the twin-hull form is efficient.

Balancing capability – the ergonomic factor that enhances stability

When it comes to micronautics, namely the science and art of designing very small and lightweight watercraft, the boat’s physical stability is not the only thing that matters, and ergonomics play an important role as well –
In order to better understand this principle, consider small fast vehicles that have no stability of their own, such as bicycles and motorcycles – Without a biker to balance them while in motion or standing in place, these vehicles would fall on their side. This said, such vehicles offer excellent means for their operator to balance them, and this balancing capability is enough to allow these vehicles to move at high speeds and over rugged terrain.
A similar, although reduced effect can be observed in other small, high-performance vehicles such as ATVs and snowmobiles, which offer their operator and passengers excellent means to balance themselves, and by doing so enhance the stability of their vehicle as well. Personal watercraft (PWC) are the aquatic version of these powerful and fast land vehicles.
So what do all the above mentioned small vehicles have in common in design and ergonomic terms? -They all feature a saddle type of seat. Typically, bikes and motorbikes feature higher saddles than ATVs, snowmobiles and PWC, but this is not always the case, since some bikes and motorbikes feature lower saddles.
In any case, saddle seats differ from other seats by the fact that their user rides them with a leg on each side, and does not sit on them with their legs in front of them. Ergonomically speaking, this allows the user to react to lateral changes intuitively, more quickly, and more effectively, and thus balance themselves and their small vehicle more efficiently.

The successful combination of the twin-hull (catamaran) and the saddle seat

The patented Wavewalk small watercraft (kayak, canoe, skiff, etc.) is unique in the sense that it combines a twin-hull (catamaran form) with a saddle seat that’s similar to the ones featuring in large-size PWC. Thus, Wavewalk kayaks are more stable, and they an be better balanced than any other kayak, canoe, or other small vessel of comparable size. This overall stability, namely the combined static stability of the boat and dynamic stability of its users, allows for unrivaled performance in speed terms, as well as in seaworthiness.

In order to get a better feeling for what this stability advantage translates to in speed terms, watch the following movies –

1. High speed motor kayak driven at high speed in the ocean chop

This video shows the kind of speed offered in the ocean, in rough water, by the Wavewalk S4, which is currently the world’s most stable as well as fastest kayak.

 

 

2. Speed comparison of S4 powered by a 5 HP vs 9.8 HP – flat water

This video offers a good opportunity to observe the S4 going at high speed on flat water, from the standpoint of another S4 driver going at a pretty good speed as well

 

 

3. The world speed record for vessels designated as kayaks

This video shows Captain Larry Jarboe, the current holder of the world speed record for motorized kayaks, driving his Wavewalk S4 at 17 mph (27 kmh) on flat water. Note that Captain Jarboe drives his motor kayak seated in the side-saddle position, and not in the more stable riding position. This is to say that from an ergonomic standpoint, he does not feel a need to take full advantage of the S4 design.

 

 

Stability, Speed, and Seaworthiness

A vessel designated as a kayak does not necessarily have to be a lame, unstable, uncomfortable, and slow one. It can be a fast, comfortable, and most seaworthy one, as demonstrated here. This performance level opens new possibilities for using these “kayaks” for offshore fishing, rescue and engineering, as well as boat tenders and fun boats.

Such a braod performance envelope is unique to the Wavewalk S4, which on top of these motorized applications, can serve as a wonderful paddle craft, both in a kayaking and canoeing mode, for one, two, or three passengers, seated and/or standing.

Car top transportation

And last but not least, unlike other fast and stable motorboats, the Wavewalk S4 does not require transportation by trailer. At 98 lbs (45 kg) without the motor, it can be car-topped by one person on the roof rack of any vehicle, carried to the beach, and launched practically anywhere.


Related topics on other websites

Retired man breaks the world speed record for motor kayaks

A multi-hull multi-boat for fishing, diving, and touring

Captain Larry Jarboe operates a small fleet of Wavewalk 700 and S4 fishing kayaks, as well as two commercial fishing boats, out of his docks in Key Largo, Florida. He uses these kayak – skiffs and boats to provide fishing, diving and touring guide services to tourists and local residents of the Keys and southern Florida.

Captain Jarboe, a master tonnage captain,  has become increasingly aware of the commercial potential of the Wavewalk S4 kayak skiff for his business, both as a paddle craft (canoe / kayak) and motorized with a portable, lightweight outboard motor.

But he also found a way to take this high performance and extremely versatile skiff to a higher level, namely use it to comfortably transport a number of passengers that he could have previously transported only in a full-size fishing boat. He created a multi-boat watercraft composed of three Wavewalk S4 skiffs attached in parallel. The middle one is motorized, and the two skiffs on the sides are attached to it by ropes that can be easily detached in case the passengers feel like continuing the journey by themselves, independently, whether in a paddling mode (canoeing or kayaking), or in a motorized mode.

The following video shows Captain Jarboe’s multi-hull multi-boat in action –

 

 

In technical terms, this modular watercraft is composed of three catamaran kayaks.
It can take up to six adult passengers – three in each of the side boats, plus the captain, who’s driving it from the middle boat.  Its total load capacity is close to 2,000 lbs, which is the equivalent to the load capacity of a fairly large leisure boat, or skiff. The passengers can sit in various positions, and stand up anytime they want.

Captain Jarboe experimented with various configurations of this boat, and he found that attaching the two side boats slightly in front of the central boat provided optimal results as far as control goes, and minimizing spray intake from the bow.

This modular watercraft is extremely stable and seaworthy, yet nimble enough to allow for trips in the mangrove creeks around Key Largo, as can be seen in the video.

In a broader sense, this new concept opens new possibilities in leisure boating, namely using the same smaller boats separately as kayaks (under paddle) or skiffs (motorized) for crews of one to three persons, and as a multi-passenger boat with room on board for up to nine adult passengers, for leisure and fishing trips and for entertaining guests, family, etc.
In other words, instead of having a big and expensive pontoon boat attached to your dock, plus a multiple canoes and kayaks, you could have use three Wavewalk S4 kayak-skiffs, and easily create an ad-hoc big boat out of them anytime you need to.

Captain Jarboe’s innovative concept also opens the door for guides on a budget, who can operate a fleet of small, very shallow draft and relatively inexpensive boats that offer a wide variety of services, rather than a big and expensive boat that offers a limited range of services, and is also limited to traveling in much deeper water.

The following photo shows three fishermen fishing standing out of a Wavewalk S4, which is outfitted with a 6 HP outboard motor –

In other words, Captain Jarboe’s multi-boat dubbed S4x3 can be used by groups of fishers who need to cross rough waters on their way to fishing the flats, or mangrove creeks, and back from there. The advantage of this concept over using big motorboats is the ability to fish shallow water without fear of reefs, oyster beds, sand bars and low tides. Its advantage over using kayaks is the bigger range of travel, better comfort, better stability, and many times more storage space – both in a joint configuration and separately.

A breakthrough in skiff design and performance

Skiffs are small, open deck, typically flat bottomed boats that are similar to Jon boats, except for some characteristic structures such as a frontal casting deck, or platform, which most skiffs feature.
Skiffs are powered by outboard motors, and they are used mostly for recreational fishing in flat water, especially shallow water. A skiff may be required to travel through moving water, such as bays, tidal currents, and rivers.

The smaller skiffs are sometimes called micro skiffs, or microskiffs, and the smallest of them can carry no more than a single passenger going on a solo trip.
Even these skiffs of solitude are too heavy for car topping, especially by one person, and they lack a proper casting platform at the front. The best performance these very small skiffs can achieve in transportation terms is fitting on a pickup truck bed, and since the most lightweight of them weighs 150 lbs without the motor, one wonders how uploading and downloading it is even possible.

This sub category of solo skiffs is rather worthless for paddling, which can explain the motto “Forget About Paddling” coined by a manufacturer of one of these micro skiff.
In shallow water, paddling is the best alternative to motorizing, since motors are often prevented from proper functioning in such waters, be it as a result of too much draft, vegetation, underwater obstacles, or regulations. Therefore, the notion that anglers fishing out of small skiffs can forget about paddling is senseless.
The S4 cockpit features slanted sides that make it easy for the passengers to move their paddles closer to the boat, so this 38″ wide craft paddles more ergonomically, and feels like a narrower kayak in this sense, although in stability terms it’s more stable than any kayak.
And as for bigger skiffs, their users are forced to forget about paddling, and that’s too bad, since it reduces their mobility and limits their ability to fish in skinny water, and increases their exposure to unpleasant surprises at low tides, etc.

Lackluster performance can be expected from these small skiffs when it comes to seaworthiness, namely performance when driving or fishing in the ocean or in other moving water, and providing enough stability in the presence of wakes that big motorboats generate. This is reminding a similar problem that many Jon boat passengers and anglers experience.

The skiff is a successful boat design, especially in the southern states, where flats fishing is popular. However, as popular is it is, this design has left many problems unsolved, or poorly solved, so far.

The Wavewalk S4 – a revolutionary skiff, or a new type of boat?

The Wavewalk S4 performs in various conditions

Legally, the S4 is a kayak, and technically, it can be described as a catamaran. This is not a good start for a boat that claims to be a skiff. But its shallow draft and front deck can serve to justify its inclusion in the skiff category, at least in the sense that it offers to do what skiffs do, just better.

Better skiff in what sense? –

  1. Weight and portability – At 98 lbs without accessories, the S4 is significantly lighter than the lightest micro skiff out there. It is the only skiff that one person can easily car-top.
  2. Load capacity – With a weight to payload ratio that’s over 1:6 (the S4 can carry over 600 lbs on board), the S4 can carry up to three adult passengers or two large-size fishermen even in a motorized mode. This is over twice the load capacity of the micro skiff that’s closest in size to the S4 in weight, and it’s comparable to the performance of bigger skiffs.
  3. Stability – The S4 is more stable than any other small skiff, and the stability it offers is comparable to the stability that medium size skiffs offer.
  4. Balancing capability – A skiff that’s considerably bigger than the S4 can be more stable in absolute terms, namely resistance to change, but no skiff offers its passengers to ride a saddle seat that only high performance personal watercraft (PWC, or jet-ski) feature. This type of seat allows the users to balance themselves intuitively, and more effectively than any other type of seat does.
  5. Versatility and mobility – The S4 is the most versatile of skiffs, in the sense that it delivers top performance both when motorized and in a paddling mode. There is no other vessel whose user can host two extra passengers on board while driving in moving water, and later paddle it effectively in a solo mode on a long trip. Similarly, there is no other vessel that performs well both in the ocean and inland, in very shallow water.
  6. Seaworthiness – The S4 excels in going through waves, and it reacts extremely well to other boats’ wakes. Such performance isn’t typical for a small or even medium size skiff, and it can be found only in bigger models.
  7. Price to Performance – The S4 may not be the least expensive micro skiff on the market, since the solitude skiff is offered for less, but in terms of price to performance the S4 is in a league of its own, especially considering the fact that it is a trailer free boat, and trailers cost money.

For more information and demo videos visit the Wavewalk S4 skiff page »

Conclusion?

As shown here, the S4 barely fits in the micro skiff class, and it deserves to be in a class of its own. However, a class of boats with just one boat model in it is not a practical tool for classification, or for anything else. The S4 is somehow comparable to the Wavewalk 700 (W700), but again, a class of boats with just two boat models in it could be acceptable in design terms, but it would not serve its purpose in marketing terms.

And this article didn’t even touch the question of the S4 classification as a kayak…

 

From boat design to production

How are these small boats made?

Here is a glimpse into the process of making a mold for Wavewalk’s newest portable skiff, the Series 4 –

The pictures below show the wooden pattern produced from solid wood and hard rubber from the CAD (computer Aided design) file for the product.  This first-generation mold will be used to produce a second generation mold called a sand mold. The mold makers will cast molten aluminum into the sand mold, and produce the actual rotational mold in which molders will pour Polyethylene resin, and produce the Series 4 boats.

The cockpit features slanted sides designed to allow the passengers to paddle this boat effectively with either canoe or kayak paddles. Paddling capability is critical to mobility and high performance in shallow water and weed infested water. This design makes poling easier as well as more effective.

The stand up casting platform is supported by integrated structural beams that look like slots when viewed from the top.

Front view that shows the S4 two hulls, which make it a full catamaran.

The stand up casting platform at the front – a typical skiff feature. This platform is particularly appreciated in flats fishing, by fly anglers and other fishers who practice sight fishing.

Rear view with the integrated transom motor mount.

Side view of this ultralight portable skiff.

Bottom view of the pattern for this boat.

More information on the Wavewalk Series 4 »

The kayak for tall and heavy (“big”) people

When kayaks are concerned, tall people are more challenged than short and average height people, and so are heavy people. Tall and heavy people, a.k.a. “big” are particularly challenged, especially if they are elderly too.

What’s the problem?

Tall people-

Being tall means that your center of gravity (CG) is higher than that of a shorter person. This is especially true for men, whose center of gravity is higher than that of women.  A high center of gravity can be a serious problem if you’re using a narrow and tippy kayak, and it can be a mere source of constant concern when you’re using a wider and stabler kayak. Being tall means that you won’t be able to paddle standing in most fishing kayaks out there, and you won’t be able to fish standing either. This is too bad, since paddling standing if fun, and it works better for sight fishing. As for fishing standing, it is a basic right of anyone who fishes from a boat, and a good fishing kayak should offer it to anyone – no ifs and buts.

Another problem that tall people experience when paddling common (sit-in and SOT) kayaks and fishing from them is discomfort, beacuse their legs are longer, and therefore their feet, which serve as forward points of contact with the kayak itself, have less leverage on the boat, due the longer distance from the person’s core and torso, where balancing takes place. In other words, a tall kayaker’s legs are required to work harder to maintain the seated posture, and to balance both the kayaker and their kayak. This continuous effort is unpleasant and often results in discomfort, back pain, and fatigue.

Heavy people –

Heavy people who sit in a regular kayak, be it a sit-in or a sit-on-top (SOT), experience discomfort from several factors: The first is the fact that when their legs are stretched forward, in front of them, their abdomen is compressed between their torso and their lap. This pressure is both unnatural and uncomfortable.

The second factor is their upper body that weighs on their buttocks and coccyx without their legs supporting any of this weight, as they otherwise would when the person is seated on a chair, or a bench. This problem occurs because the heavy kayaker’s legs are stretched in front of them, in the L posture that as become the hallmark of kayaking discomfort.

A compressed abdomen makes it harder to breath, and with a compressed behind and lower spine come an exacerbation of the typical kayaking back pain symptoms.

And let’s not forget that if a person is really heavy, they might be challenged when it comes to balancing their kayak.

Tall and heavy, i.e. “Big” people –

People who are big, that is both tall and heavy, aren’t that rare in the general U.S. population, but you’d hardly find them in kayaks, because kayaking and kayak fishing are too much of a challenge for them.  An additional hardship that such people experience with kayaks is getting into the kayak and out of it. This is especially true with traditional sit-in designs, but it’s also true for SOT kayaks.

The old age factor

The above said is particularly problematic for tall, heavy and big people who are elderly. Being older often means that one’s sense of balance could be impaired, and older people are usually less supple and agile than younger folks are. On top of this, many elderly people suffer from various conditions involving back pain, joint pain, arthritis, and various disabilities and sensitivities that further prevent them from using regular kayaks, especially for fishing, which typically requires staying in the kayak for longer periods of time.

The kayak for tall, heavy, big and elderly people

Wavewalk’s new 700 series solves all the above problems. Kayaks from this series can easily accommodate very tall people, who comfortably ride the kayak’s 15″ high saddle, without being forced into the L posture. These people can stretch their legs anytime they feel like, stand up easily, as well as paddle and fish standing up. Going back to the seated position is not a problem either – It’s done intuitively and effortlessly.

There is no kayak out there that’s more stable than the W700, not even the world’s most stable kayak until today, the W500.
The W700 is so stable that a 200 lbs, 6′ tall middle-aged guy can stand with both feet in one of its hulls, and paddle on both sides of the kayak, as shown in this video:

But this absolute stability isn’t the only advantage that big and tall users get from this kayak: Both getting into the cockpit and out of it is a breeze, even for this 300 lbs, 6’3″ tall, 65 year old fisherman, who simply walks into this kayak, and immediately starts paddling standing in it:

Read the review contributed by this big and tall kayak angler »

More information about the kayak for big, tall and elderly people »